See/download the final papers at Taylor & Francis Online (subscription required)
See/download the pre-publication open access versions below.
- Annet P. Pauwelussen: The Moves of a Bajau Middlewoman: Understanding the Disparity between Trade Networks and Marine Conservation
- Alicia Torres: Migration and Development: Equalisation and Inequalities in Ecuador’s Southern Sierra
- Rosita Henry: Double Displacement: Indigenous Australians and Artefacts of the Wet Tropics
- Fiona McCormack: Mauss, Interestedness, and Disinterestedness: Hawaiian and Maori Fisheries
- Pierre-Yves Le Meur: Anthropology and the Mining Arena in New Caledonia: Issues and Positionalities
Annet P. Pauwelussen
Sociology of Development and Change Group
Wageningen, The Netherlands
The Moves of a Bajau Middlewoman: Understanding the Disparity between Trade Networks and Marine Conservation
At the interface of Indonesia and Malaysia, border-crossing maritime trade appears to elude attempts to conserve marine resources. In Berau district (East Kalimantan) attempts to protect coastal waters from illegal fishing and trade fail to correspond with mobile trade networks. In this article, I describe how a female Bajau trader acts out her (illegal) trade network in practice. The article draws on 18 months of ethnographic research, during which I joined the trader along her travels through the coastal zone of northeastern Kalimantan. Using a performative network approach, I explore the trader’s network as a continuously generated effect of practice and movement. Following her trading practices, I show that the performance of her network requires the ceaseless movement of people and things, in travelling (mobility) as well as in the reshaping of relations (fluidity). The trader’s network is enmeshed in historically grown relations of kinship, ethnicity, and patron–client associations across the sea. These socially and spatially mobile associations are at odds with conservationists’ preoccupation with a spatial fixation of people, places, and borders. By showing how relations of loyalty, debt, and affiliation systematically transgress these borders, I demonstrate the significance of a relational approach to marine conservation that takes into account the mobility and interdependency of maritime networks. Such an approach may help to redress the hegemony of place-based approaches in marine conservation.
Department of Anthropology, History and Humanities
Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales – FLACSO Ecuador
Migration and Development: Equalisation and Inequalities in Ecuador’s Southern Sierra
Based upon a case study of the municipality of Cañar, in Andean Ecuador, this paper examines the conflictive relationship between migration and development to show how current approaches fail to consider the political issues implicit in this link. Instead, the concept of displacement is proposed, which, as argued in this work, implies an action (that of moving to another place) which subjects perform reflexively upon themselves. This challenges the notion of this action as a transitive one, in which the subject exerts the action on an object. Cañar combines two important elements that make it relevant for highlighting this relationship: on the one hand, it is a district with a high indigenous population and, on the other, it has had historically a high rate of immigration to the USA and Spain. These two factors make it possible to confront both the immigrants’ practices and the role of nation-states in the construction of structures of exclusion and, thereby, to examine why the result of this confrontation does not necessarily turn into development. From this viewpoint, the paper discerns the role of the nation-state in constructing structures of social, political, cultural, and symbolic exclusion in the locality of origin as well as in the locality of destination of migrants, further presenting the forms of agency used by the migrants to overcome these structures. In other words, it is an attempt to take the analysis into a terrain that escapes the dichotomies between state (structures) and actors (agency).
School of Arts and Social Sciences
James Cook University
Townsville, QLD, Australia
Double Displacement: Indigenous Australians and Artefacts of the Wet Tropics
The history of dispossession of Indigenous Australians as a result of government policies has been well documented. Going beyond this established literature, this paper explores connections between the displacement of Aboriginal people of the rainforest region of North Queensland to reserves and the ethnographic trade in museum artefacts. I provide an analysis of how Aboriginal people and some of their material products were historically sent along different trajectories. The paper sheds light on debates about the political and economic aspects of a history of displacement, circulation, and emplacement that continues to produce inequalities today.
Department of Anthropology
The University of Waikato
Hamilton, New Zealand
Mauss, Interestedness, and Disinterestedness: Hawaiian and Maori Fisheries
This article uses Mauss’s thesis on The Gift as a lens through which to critically compare Hawaiian and Māori fisheries. I focus, in particular, on the specific and paradoxical blending of interestedness and disinterestedness in the subsistence sector in Hawaii, and the historical separation of these phenomena in the context of fisheries management in New Zealand. As emergent financial commodities fish symbolises a new type of disjuncture between production and exchange, a disjuncture which is likely to be unsustainable in terms of either human or environmental costs.
Pierre-Yves Le Meur
IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement/Research Institute for Development)
GRED (Governance, Risk, Environment, Development)
Noumea, New Caledonia
Anthropology and the Mining Arena in New Caledonia: Issues and Positionalities
In the last 25 years, the mining sector has become an important field of investigation and controversy for anthropologists. As an object, the ‘mine’ itself poses specific problems that make it particularly fertile ground for the exploration of inextricably linked theoretical, methodological, ethical, and political issues. In this paper, I explore the issue of the positionality of anthropologists within the mining arena. The analysis of positionality is taken beyond an individual perspective focusing on ethics, engagement and responsibility, to additionally include discussions of networking, alliance-building and institutionalising processes. I shall begin by dealing with the problems posed by the anthropology of mining and the various perspectives that respond to it. In the second section, I narrow the focus to the case of New Caledonia. In the third section, I present the context and challenges associated with the discussed cases. I portray the cases in question and, in particular, the new arena represented by the National Centre for Technological Research (CNRT) ‘Nickel and its Environment’, an agency established in 2008 to fund research on nickel in New Caledonia. The analysis in terms of a ‘hybrid’ forum of this arena will be complemented by the consideration of the social demand for the anthropology of mining. In the concluding section, the paper outlines options for further research while stressing the need for a balanced, ‘symmetrical’ approach of the multiple actors’ agendas constitutive of the mining arena.